Inicio  /  Urban Science  /  Vol: 8 Par: 1 (2024)  /  Artículo

Hemeroby Mapping of the Belém Landscape in Eastern Amazon and Impact Study of Urbanization on the Local Climate

Leonardo Seabra Furtado    
Raimundo Vitor Santos Pereira and Everaldo Barreiros de Souza    


This work contributes to the studies on landscape mapping induced by human pressure directly related to the urbanization process, whose approach is based on the concept of hemeroby adapted to the metropolitan area of Belém in the eastern Amazon. The mapping results using 1985 and 2021 Landsat satellite data indicated that the artificial coverage characterized as medium to the high urban system (polyhemerobic and metahemerobic degrees) has increased by almost 17% toward northern districts and Outeiro/Mosqueiro islands, while the natural vegetation cover suppression (ahemerobic degree) was around 11%. In addition, we investigated the impacts of urban expansion on seasonal (WET from January to April and DRY from July to November) surface air temperature (minimum TN and maximum TX) patterns. From statistical comparisons between 18-year samples (2004/2021 to 1985/2002), we find evidence of a current significantly warmer climate, with a notable indication of higher surface temperature over densely urbanized areas compared to lower values over natural areas. In the TX climatology, particularly for the DRY regime, we identified a pattern similar to the classic heat island model with concentric isotherms reaching a maximum center over the more urbanized continental region of Belém and a thermal decrease at the edges. Therefore, the findings of this work are convincing that Belém already faces the direct impacts of urbanization on the local climate, so it is crucial to develop government strategies aimed at taking action to mitigate socioenvironmental risks and threats to the well-being of urban populations.