The article provides a synthetic analysis of the interrelationships between economic development, the primary economic measure of which is the size of Gross Domestic Product, and the volume of transport work measured in tkm and pkm. The study was conducted over a 30-year time series based on the polynomial curves of the most-developed economies (the United States, Japan, China and EU-28) and Russia, the largest area of the world, with large natural resources and significant military industry, and constantly increasing since 2004 GDP. The research shows that GDP in the whole period (1995?2015) in the United States, Japan and the European Union is growing rapidly, significantly ahead of the tkm and pkm transport indicators. In China and Russia, GDP growth has been increasing since 2003, while the dynamic growth of transport (in billion tkm) in 1995?2015 is well ahead of economic growth (GDP). In Poland, trends in the development of the GDP measurement and transport indicators (tkm and pkm) are similar to those of Russia and China.