Nigerian?s prisons conditions is pathetic, a very dreadful and incompetent of assuring expected rehabilitation of inmates. There exists a general rareness of infrastructures, policies, and corruption in the system. Given this context, the main thrust of this study was to examine the specialization of social worker on the impact of prison rehabilitation programmes on the welfare of the inmates. To achieve the purpose of this study content analysis through the use of books, journal publications and available sources on the internet library. This is to give a profounder understanding of the specialization issues that surround social workers in Nigerian prisons with a view of bettering the inmate?s life. The findings of this research work reveals that, lack of qualified social workers affect the rehabilitation programme aim at reforming the inmates. Also, the findings disclose poor founding and ineffective governance as responsible for the shortage staff in the prison, rigidity (bureaucratic bottle neck) and institutional failure. Issues such as corruption, nepotism, and regional sentiments were the real problems behind the unspecialized social workers in Nigerian prisons service.