Rising trend of international mobility of healthcare workers, ageing population, new diseases and infections bring many challenges to the national healthcare system. Consequently, it is necessary to pay special attention to the development of the healthcare system, as well as the attraction and retention of healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to examine and analyze the key factors that influence the decision-making process of future healthcare professionals regarding employment. 444 participants who are studying or have finished one of the accredited study programs in the Republic of Serbia in the field of medicine participated in the empirical research in the period from 2020 to 2022. The research results showed that three key factors that future healthcare professionals value when deciding on employment are: opportunities for career advancement, opportunities for personal growth and development, and a pleasant work environment. The fourth place was taken by an interesting, significant, and challenging job, while salary is in the fifth place. The optimal functioning of the healthcare system depends on the healthcare professionals, so the obtained results are valuable for leaders, managers, and decision makers in healthcare institutions. They are well-informed to adequately prepare employee value proposition not only for the attraction of healthcare workers, but also for their retention in the long run.